Defrost bread dough according to package directions.
Meanwhile, in a small saucepan, melt butter. Add flour and stir in milk, salt and mustard powder. Cook over medium heat until thick and bubbly. Remove from heat and add in 1 1/2 cups cheese. Stir just until melted. Set aside 1/2 cup cheese sauce.
Slightly steam broccoli so it is still crisp (about 4 minutes). Combine cheese sauce, chicken, and broccoli.
Roll out bread dough into a 12" by 15" rectangle. Sprinkle with 1/2 cup cheddar and spread chicken mixture over top. Roll dough so you have an 18" long log. Cut into 10 even rolls (as you would roll and cut cinnamon rolls). Top with the sauce you had set aside and extra cheese if desired.
Place into a greased 9x13 pan cover and let rise about 20 minutes. Preheat oven to 350°F Bake 25 minutes or until browned on top.